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Part III: Tayammum

Q.        What is Ta-yam-mum?
A.        To clean najaasat hukmi using taahir (clean) clay or earth or the like is called Tayammum.

Q.        When is tayammum valid?
A.        When water is not available or when the use of water is injurious to health.

Q.        What is meant by water being “not available”?
A.        When water is at least a mile away or there is fear of enemy if one goes to find water. For example, a well is nearby the house but to go there may result in your getting killed by an enemy or a dangerous snake or a man-eating animal. Or if there is so little water that if used for wuduu’ it will cause trouble of thirst. Or the well is there but no bucket nor rope. Or if a person is alone and is helpless to get water which is present nearby: all these conditions mean that water is “not available.”

Q.        When should the danger to health be considered?
A.        When it is known by one’s own experience or when an experienced physician tells that the use of water will be injurious for the health, then tayammum is allowed.

Q.        What is meant by water being at least a mile away?
A.        When a man is at a place where there is no water but is told or he himself knows that water is available at a mile’s distance, it will be necessary for him to go get the water and do wuduu’.

But if there is no one to tell and there is no trace of water or is believed that it is a mile or more away, it is not necessary to get water. Tayammum is allowed in such a case.

Q.        How many things are fard in tayammum?
A.        Three:

bulletTo strike both hands on the earth and rub them on the face;
bulletTo strike both hands on the earth and rub both forearms including the elbows.

Q.        Explain how to do tayammum.
A.        First, there should be the niyyah (I am doing tayammum to remove najaasat for performing prayers).

Second, rub both hands on taahir earth and blow of the excessive dust. Then rub both the hands on the face in such a way that no part of it is left out. Even a hair-breadth of unrubbed space will not complete tayammum.

Third, rub again both the hands on the earth. Blow off the dust. First put the four fingers of the left hand under the finger tips of the right hand and pull them up to the elbow. In this way, pull over the inner part of the right hand, from the elbow to the fingers. Pass the inner side of the left thumb over the upper side of the right thumb. Then pass the right hand on the left in the same way.

Then do khilaal of the fingers. If one is wearing a ring, it is necessary to remove it or at least revolve it. It is sunnah to do khilaal of the beard also.

Q.        Is tayammum allowed for wuduu’ and ghusl both or for wuduu’ only?
A.        Tayammum is allowed for both.

Q.        On what things is tayammum allowed?
A.        Tayammum is allowed on clean, pure earth or sand, stone or lime-stone, baked earthen pots which are not glazed, baked or unbaked bricks, walls of mud, stone or lime-stone or yellow clay. Tayammum on clean dust is also allowed.

Q.        On what things is tayammum not allowed?
A         Tayammum is not allowed on wood, metals, glass, wheat, barley or other foodgrains, cloth and ashes. Tayammum is not allowed on things which may melt or burn to ashes if put in a fire.

Q.        Is tayammum allowed if there is no dust on the walls made of stone, bricks or lime?
A.        Things on which tayammum is allowed need not be covered with dust. If there is a pot of stone, or clay, or a brick, it can be used for tayammum even if it has been washed.

Q.        Can tayammum be done with the dust that collects over the things on which tayammum is otherwise not allowed?
A.        Yes, if the dust is in such a quantity that when struck by hand it flies up, or rubbing by hand leaves a mark in the dust, then tayammum is allowed with it.

Q.        Is one allowed to say prayers by tayammum done for touching or reading the Holy Qur’aan or for entering a mosque or saying adhaan or replying to salaam?
A.        No, it is not allowed. [Niyyah is necessary for tayammum.]

Q.        By tayammum done for namaaz janaazah (funeral prayer) or sajdah tilaawat (prostration necessitated by reciting or hearing certain aayaat of the Qur’aan) can prayers be said?
A.        Yes, it is allowed.

Q.        What if tayammum is done when the water is not available but one finds water after one has said prayers?
A.        Prayers said already are all right. It will not be repeated whether the water was found at the time of prayers or afterwards.

Q.        What breaks tayammum?
A.        Things which break wuduu’ also break tayammum. Also tayammum for bathing breaks only after hadath-e-akbar.

Tayammum breaks when water is found. Tayammum done due to a disease ends when one recovers.

Q.        Does tayammum for one prayer hold good for prayers at another time?
A.        One can say any number of prayers by one tayammum as long as it does not break. So tayammum done for fard prayers will hold good for nafl, for reading the Qur’aan, for namaaz janaazah, sajdah tilaawat and for all other kinds of prayers.

Q.        What is the duration of tayammum?
A.        As long as water is not available or the helplessness continues. This can last for years.



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Last modified 02/14/03 10:49 AM