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Part III: Ghusl

Q.        How many types of ghusl are there?
A.        There are three types: fard, sunnah, and mustahab.

Q.        How many fard ghusl are there?
A.        There are six. They will be described elsewhere in this book.

Q.        How many sunnat types of ghusl are there and what are they?
A.        They are four:

bulletGhusl for Friday prayer.
bulletGhusl for ‘Eid prayers.
bulletGhusl before one puts on Ihraam for Hajj.
bulletGhusl for wuqoof at ‘Arafaat.

Q.        What sorts of ghusl is mustahab and what are they?
A.        There are many mustahab (recommended) types. Some are:

bulletGhusl on the night of 15th of the month of Sha’baan.
bulletGhusl on the night of ‘Arafah, that is the night following the evening of the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah.
bulletGhusl for the lunar or solar eclipse prayers.
bulletGhusl for Salaatul-Istisqaa (prayers for rain).
bulletGhusl before entering Makkah Mu’azzamah or Madinah Munawwarah.
bulletGhusl for the person who has given bath to the dead.
bulletGhusl of a kaafir at the time of his embracing Islaam.

Q.        If there is necessity of ghusl and one stands in the rain or dives into a river so that water flows over the entire body, will it complete the ghusl?
A.        Yes, if one also passes water into his mouth and nostrils, then the Ghusl will be completed.

Q.        Is it necessary to face qiblah while doing ghusl?
A.        It is not allowed to face the qiblah while one is naked. There is no harm, however, if the satar is covered.

Q.        How to do ghusl with the satar uncovered?
A.        It is all right to do so if it is done in a bathroom or at such place where no one else can see one’s satar.

Q.        How many things are Makrooh in ghusl?
A.        (1) Waste of water; (2) talking or facing qiblah while the satar is not covered; (3) wuduu’ done against sunnah is makrooh.

Q.        If wuduu’ is not done before the ghusl, is it necessary to do wuduu’ after ghusl for prayers?
A.        Ghusl completes wuduu’, so there is no necessity of doing wuduu’ again.



More About Masah Over Socks

Q.        From what time is the duration of masah to be counted?
A.        From the time wuduu’ breaks, it should be counted one day and one night or three days and three nights. For example, one wears socks after wuduu’ for morning prayers on Friday and this wuduu’ breaks after the Zuhr prayers. Such a person, if he is at home, can do masah till the time of Zuhr prayers on Saturday and if he is in journey he can do masah till the Zuhr prayers of Monday.

Q.        What things break masah?
A.        Masah breaks by the same things which break the wuduu’ and in addition (1) after the expiry of the period allowed for masah; (2) by taking off the socks; (3) and when the socks get torn equal to the space of three fingers, then the masah breaks.

Q.        What if one takes off the socks or the time for masah expires while one has wuduu’?
A.        In both these cases, it is enough to put on the socks after washing the feet. Doing full wuduu’ is, however, mustahab.

Q.        What if a traveller begins doing masah on socks but returns home after one day and night?
A.        He should take off his socks and do wuduu’ afresh.

Q.        What if one is staying at home and is doing masah and then sets off on a journey?
A.        If he has begun the travelling before the expiry of one day and one night, he can keep on the socks for three days and three nights and should continue on doing masah. If the journey begins after the expiry of one day and one night, then he should take off the socks and do wuduu’ afresh.

Q.        What if the socks have many small holes in them?
A.        If the socks are torn at various places, add up the area of torn parts together. If it is equal to the breadth of three fingers, masah will not be allowed. If it is less, then it will be allowed. If both socks are torn and the area of torn portions of both equals three fingers but separately they are less, then masah is allowed.



Najaasat Haqeeqi and How to Clean It

Q.        How to clean najaasat, mud and dirt from things of leather, such as leather socks, slippers, etc.?
A.        Such dirt can be got rid of by rubbing it on the ground or with any other thing. However, no portion of dirt or its effect should remain on the surface.

Q.        How to make these things taahir if urine, wine or anything of the kind falls on these things?
A.        By water or any other clean liquid. Washing is necessary of the leather materials except when soiled with mud, dirt or feces.

Q.        Can knives, swords or things of steel, silver, bronze and aluminium be cleaned by anything other than water?
A.        Things of iron and metals like silver, gold, copper, aluminium, bronze or things of ivory or bone materials or clay pots when they are plain, stainless and have no carvings, can be made taahir by rubbing off the najaasat. But the najaasat must not remain in carvings.

Q.        How to clean the ground when urine or wine has fallen on it?
A.        When the ground gets dry and the effect, colour, smell and taste of the najaasat goes away, it becomes clean.

Q.        How to clean the najaasat from bricks, stony floor or walls of a house or mosque?
A.        When the bricks or stones of such a building get dry and the effect of the najaasat goes, they become taahir.

Q.        How to make those things taahir which cannot be squeezed, like pots or thick cushions and beddings?
A.        Things which cannot be squeezed should be made taahir by washing three times with water. After each washing leave it until it becomes dry. Then wash again. But while washing rub hard to get rid of the najaasat.

Q.        Can earthen pots be made taahir?
A.        Earthen pots can be made taahir by washing in the same way as the other things mentioned in the preceding question and answer.

Q.        Will the ashes of a dirty thing, like cow-dung, be clean or unclean?
A.        Any nijs thing, when burnt to ashes, becomes taahir.

Q.        What if a rat dies after falling into ghee?
A.        If the ghee is frozen, the part where the rat lies and the nearby portion should be taken out and the rest will be taahir. If the ghee is in liquid condition, the whole thing will become nijs.

Q.        How to clean nijs ghee or oil?
A.        Mix an equal quantity of water in the dirty ghee or oil and boil it. Then take out the ghee or oil which comes on the surface of the water. Repeat this again two times. Thus ghee becomes taahir.



Other Rules About Istinjaa

Q.        What things are makrooh in istinjaa’?
A.        (1) Doing istinjaa’ while face or back is towards the qiblah.
            (2) Doing istinjaa’ at a place where others can see the satar of the person.

Q.        What things are makrooh while one is urinating or passing stool?
A.        (1) Facing or putting the back towards qiblah.
            (2) Urinating while standing.
            (3) To go to the bathroom into a canal or well,
            (4) or at the edge of a canal or well,
            (5) or by the wall of the masjid,
            (6) or in a graveyard,
            (7) or in a rat’s or any other type of hole in the ground.
            (8) To sit at a lower place and urinate towards higher ground.
            (9) To speak while one is going to the toilet.
            (10) To go to the bathroom on a thoroughfare or main street.
            (11) To go to the bathroom at the place of making wuduu’ or ghusl.

All these things are hated and undesireable.



Other Rules About Water

Q.        Is wuduu’ allowed with water that is heated by the sun?
A.        It is allowed but is not preferable.

Q.        If drops of water fall into a pot full of water while one is doing wuduu’, will wuduu’ be allowed with the water in the pot?
A.        If no najaasat was washed with it, then this water is still clean. When used water mixes with fresh water and the quantity of fresh water is greater than the used water, wuduu’ will be allowed by such water. If, however, the quantity of the used and fresh water is equal or the used water exceeds in proportion, then wuduu’ and bathing with such water is not allowed.

Q.        If anything otherwise taahir, e.g. soap or saffron, mixes with water, will wuduu’ be allowed with such water?
A.        Wuduu’ will be allowed with such water if a taahir thing mixes with it. Wuduu’ will be allowed with the water that has changed two qualities out of three: color, smell and liquidity. Wuduu’ and ghusl is not allowed with water that has changed in all three qualities and become heavy.

Q.        Will it be taken as “running water” if there is a tank or reservoir two yards broad and 25 yards long, or 5 by 50 yards?
A. Yes, it will be treated as “running water.” Note: the “yard” fixed by Sharee’ah is about 21 inches long.

Q.        Will it be treated as “running water” if the opening of the tank is smaller than as prescribed by Sharee’ah but is bigger at the bottom?
A.        Such a tank will be taken as “running water” if it is 10 yards long and 10 yards broad and is covered from four sides or from one or two sides. The cover must be above the water and not in contact with the water. But if the cover touches the water, the tank will be regarded as a small tank and the rules of “running water” will not apply, despite any great quantity of water it may have.

This means that the open surface of the water, or if it is covered, the surface that is not in contact with anything, is to be taken into account while comparing with the quantity of water specified by Sharee’ah. This amount of water should, however, not be less than the measurement set up by Sharee’ah.



Other Rules About the Well

Q.        What is the ruling for the excreta of birds like sparrows, pigeons, etc., falling into the well?
A.        The falling of excreta of pigeons or birds or one of two pieces of the excreta of goat, sheep or camel do not make a well nijs.

Q.        What about the well if a kaafir dives into the well to find a bucket?
A.        If a kaafir takes a bath and puts on taahir clothes before he dives into the well, the well will remain clean. If he went into the well without bathing and wearing his usual clothes, the whole water of the well will be taken out because the kaafir’s body and clothes usually are nijs.

Q.        If there is no particular bucket for the well and water is taken out by all kinds of buckets, big and small, what bucket should be used for taking out the water of such a well to make it taahir?
A.        In such a case, the middle-sized bucket will be preferred. Middle-sized means a bucket which can easily hold 3˝ seer (about 7 lbs.) of water.


(The sections above are all dealing with additional information regarding subjects in Parts 1 and 2. From here on, new rules will be explained.)



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Last modified 02/14/03 10:49 AM