Q. If there is necessity of ghusl
and one stands in the rain or dives into a river so that water flows over the
entire body, will it complete the ghusl?
A. Yes, if one also passes water
into his mouth and nostrils, then the Ghusl will be completed.
Q. Is it necessary to face qiblah
while doing ghusl?
A. It is not allowed to face the qiblah
while one is naked. There is no harm, however, if the satar is covered.
Q. How to do ghusl
with the satar uncovered?
A. It is all right to do so if it
is done in a bathroom or at such place where no one else can see one’s satar.
Q. How many things are Makrooh
A. (1) Waste of water; (2) talking
or facing qiblah while the satar is not covered; (3) wuduu’
done against sunnah is makrooh.
Q. If wuduu’ is not
done before the ghusl, is it necessary to do wuduu’
after ghusl for prayers?
A. Ghusl completes wuduu’,
so there is no necessity of doing wuduu’ again.
More About Masah Over Socks
Q. From what time is the duration
of masah to be counted?
A. From the time wuduu’
breaks, it should be counted one day and one night or three days and three
nights. For example, one wears socks after wuduu’ for morning prayers
on Friday and this wuduu’ breaks after the Zuhr prayers.
Such a person, if he is at home, can do masah till the time of Zuhr
prayers on Saturday and if he is in journey he can do masah till the Zuhr
prayers of Monday.
Q. What things break masah?
A. Masah breaks by the same
things which break the wuduu’ and in addition (1) after the expiry of
the period allowed for masah; (2) by taking off the socks; (3) and when
the socks get torn equal to the space of three fingers, then the masah
Q. What if one takes off the socks
or the time for masah expires while one has wuduu’?
A. In both these cases, it is
enough to put on the socks after washing the feet. Doing full wuduu’
is, however, mustahab.
Q. What if a traveller begins doing
masah on socks but returns home after one day and night?
A. He should take off his socks and
do wuduu’ afresh.
Q. What if one is staying at home
and is doing masah and then sets off on a journey?
A. If he has begun the travelling
before the expiry of one day and one night, he can keep on the socks for three
days and three nights and should continue on doing masah. If the
journey begins after the expiry of one day and one night, then he should take
off the socks and do wuduu’ afresh.
Q. What if the socks have many
small holes in them?
A. If the socks are torn at various
places, add up the area of torn parts together. If it is equal to the breadth of
three fingers, masah will not be allowed. If it is less, then it
will be allowed. If both socks are torn and the area of torn portions of both
equals three fingers but separately they are less, then masah is
Najaasat Haqeeqi and How to Clean It
Q. How to clean najaasat,
mud and dirt from things of leather, such as leather socks, slippers, etc.?
A. Such dirt can be got rid of by
rubbing it on the ground or with any other thing. However, no portion of dirt or
its effect should remain on the surface.
Q. How to make these things taahir
if urine, wine or anything of the kind falls on these things?
A. By water or any other clean
liquid. Washing is necessary of the leather materials except when soiled with
mud, dirt or feces.
Q. Can knives, swords or things of
steel, silver, bronze and aluminium be cleaned by anything other than water?
A. Things of iron and metals like
silver, gold, copper, aluminium, bronze or things of ivory or bone materials or
clay pots when they are plain, stainless and have no carvings, can be made taahir
by rubbing off the najaasat. But the najaasat must not remain in
Q. How to clean the ground when
urine or wine has fallen on it?
A. When the ground gets dry and the
effect, colour, smell and taste of the najaasat goes away, it becomes
Q. How to clean the najaasat
from bricks, stony floor or walls of a house or mosque?
A. When the bricks or stones of
such a building get dry and the effect of the najaasat goes, they become taahir.
Q. How to make those things taahir
which cannot be squeezed, like pots or thick cushions and beddings?
A. Things which cannot be squeezed
should be made taahir by washing three times with water. After
each washing leave it until it becomes dry. Then wash again. But while washing
rub hard to get rid of the najaasat.
Q. Can earthen pots be made taahir?
A. Earthen pots can be made taahir
by washing in the same way as the other things mentioned in the preceding
question and answer.
Q. Will the ashes of a dirty thing,
like cow-dung, be clean or unclean?
A. Any nijs thing, when
burnt to ashes, becomes taahir.
Q. What if a rat dies after falling
A. If the ghee is frozen,
the part where the rat lies and the nearby portion should be taken out and the
rest will be taahir. If the ghee is in liquid condition,
the whole thing will become nijs.
Q. How to clean nijs ghee
A. Mix an equal quantity of water
in the dirty ghee or oil and boil it. Then take out the ghee or
oil which comes on the surface of the water. Repeat this again two times. Thus ghee
Other Rules About Istinjaa
Q. What things are makrooh
A. (1) Doing istinjaa’
while face or back is towards the qiblah.
(2) Doing istinjaa’
at a place where others can see the satar of the person.
Q. What things are makrooh
while one is urinating or passing stool?
A. (1) Facing or putting the back
Urinating while standing.
(3) To go
to the bathroom into a canal or well,
(4) or at
the edge of a canal or well,
(5) or by
the wall of the masjid,
(6) or in
(7) or in
a rat’s or any other type of hole in the ground.
(8) To sit
at a lower place and urinate towards higher ground.
speak while one is going to the toilet.
(10) To go
to the bathroom on a thoroughfare or main street.
(11) To go
to the bathroom at the place of making wuduu’ or ghusl.
things are hated and undesireable.
Other Rules About Water
Q. Is wuduu’
allowed with water that is heated by the sun?
A. It is allowed but is not
Q. If drops of water fall into a
pot full of water while one is doing wuduu’, will wuduu’
be allowed with the water in the pot?
A. If no najaasat was washed
with it, then this water is still clean. When used water mixes with fresh water
and the quantity of fresh water is greater than the used water, wuduu’
will be allowed by such water. If, however, the quantity of the used and fresh
water is equal or the used water exceeds in proportion, then wuduu’
and bathing with such water is not allowed.
Q. If anything otherwise taahir,
e.g. soap or saffron, mixes with water, will wuduu’ be allowed
with such water?
A. Wuduu’ will be
allowed with such water if a taahir thing mixes with it. Wuduu’
will be allowed with the water that has changed two qualities out of three:
color, smell and liquidity. Wuduu’ and ghusl is
not allowed with water that has changed in all three qualities and become heavy.
Q. Will it be taken as “running
water” if there is a tank or reservoir two yards broad and 25 yards long, or 5
by 50 yards?
A. Yes, it will be treated as “running water.” Note: the “yard” fixed
by Sharee’ah is about 21 inches long.
Q. Will it be treated as “running
water” if the opening of the tank is smaller than as prescribed by Sharee’ah
but is bigger at the bottom?
A. Such a tank will be taken as
“running water” if it is 10 yards long and 10 yards broad and is covered
from four sides or from one or two sides. The cover must be above the water and
not in contact with the water. But if the cover touches the water, the tank will
be regarded as a small tank and the rules of “running water” will not apply,
despite any great quantity of water it may have.
that the open surface of the water, or if it is covered, the surface that is not
in contact with anything, is to be taken into account while comparing with the
quantity of water specified by Sharee’ah. This amount of water should,
however, not be less than the measurement set up by Sharee’ah.
Other Rules About the Well
Q. What is the ruling for the
excreta of birds like sparrows, pigeons, etc., falling into the well?
A. The falling of excreta of
pigeons or birds or one of two pieces of the excreta of goat, sheep or camel do
not make a well nijs.
Q. What about the well if a kaafir
dives into the well to find a bucket?
A. If a kaafir takes a bath
and puts on taahir clothes before he dives into the well, the well
will remain clean. If he went into the well without bathing and wearing his
usual clothes, the whole water of the well will be taken out because the kaafir’s
body and clothes usually are nijs.
Q. If there is no particular bucket
for the well and water is taken out by all kinds of buckets, big and small, what
bucket should be used for taking out the water of such a well to make it taahir?
A. In such a case, the middle-sized
bucket will be preferred. Middle-sized means a bucket which can easily hold 3˝ seer
(about 7 lbs.) of water.
(The sections above are all dealing with additional information regarding
subjects in Parts 1 and 2. From here on, new rules will be explained.)