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Part III: Types of Rulings

Q.        What is fard, waajib, sunnah and nafl and what is the difference between them?
A.        Fard means compulsory beyond any argument. Anyone who denies a fard is a kaafir. And one who leaves a fard without excuse is a faasiq and is punishable.

Waajib comes second to fard. One who denies waajib is not a kaafir but if he leaves it without excuse, he is faasiq and deserves punishment.

Sunnah is an act which the Prophet () did and his Companions followed and commanded.

Nafl is an act commanded by Sharee’ah. It brings reward if done but no punishment if not done. It is also called mustahab, mandoob or tatawwu’.

Q.        How many types of fard are there?
A.        Two types: Fard ‘Ayn and Fard Kifaayah.

Fard ‘ayn is compulsory on every individual Muslim. One who leaves it is faasiq and will be punished.

Fard kifaayah is such an act which can be performed by a few persons and it satisfies the obligation of the entire group or community. It will be a sin of all the people if nobody does it at all.

Q.        How many types of sunan (pl. of sunnah) are there?
A.        Two: Sunnat Mu’akkadah and Sunnat Ghayr Mu’akkadah.

Sunnat mu’akkadah is an act which has been constantly performed by the Prophet () or he has ordered the Muslims to do it and it was done ever since and was never left without an excuse. It is sinful to abandon a sunnah. It is very sinful to make a habit of leaving such a sunnah.

Sunnat ghayr mu’akkadah is the one which was often done by the Prophet () but was left sometimes without any excuse. This sunnat is more rewarding than something which is mustahab but there is no sin if it is left. These are also called Sunan-e-Zawaa-id.

Q.        What is meant by haraam, makrooh tahreemi and makrooh tanzeehi?
A.        Haraam is that which is illegal, forbidden and absolutely proven to be so by daleel-e-qat’i (undeniable argument, for example the Qur’aan). One who does such a thing is faasiq and deserves punishment and one who does not consider a haraam thing as being haraam is a kaafir.

Makrooh tahreemi is next to haraam. It is forbidden and proved to be so by daleel-e-zanni but one who does not accept it as such is not a kaafir but is very sinful.

Makrooh tanzeehi is an act which brings Allah’s blessings if it is avoided. If done, it is bad but not punishable.

Q.        What is mubaah?
A.        Mubaah is an act, the doing of which brings neither any blessing nor punishment.



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Last modified 02/14/03 10:49 AM