Part IV: Ta’leemul-Arkaan or Islamic A’maal (Islamic
Q. Is it waajib to recite
qiraa’ah aloud in Fajr, Maghrib and ‘Isha prayers even if one is
saying them alone?
A. It is not waajib to read
qiraa’ah loudly in these prayers in such case, but it is certainly
Q. What is the ruling if these
prayers are said qadaa (makeup for missed prayers)?
A. The imaam should read
them in a loud voice. For the munfarid there is a choice to say the qadaa
aloud or in a low voice.
Q. How much qiraa’ah is
sunnah in the fard prayers?
A. While on a journey, there is a
choice to recite any small or big surah
after Surah Faatihah. For one who is in residence (that is, not on
a journey), there is a quantity of masnoon
Q. What is the masnoon
qiraa’ah in prayers when one is in residence?
A. It is sunnah to recite Tawaal-e-mufassal
in Fajr and Zuhr prayers, Qasaar-e- mufassal in
Maghrib prayers, and Awsaat-e- mufassal in ‘Asr and
Q. What are Tawaal-e-mufassal,
Qasaar-e- mufassal, and Awsaat-e- mufassal?
A. The surahs of the Holy
Qur’aan from al-Hujuraat (49) to al-Burooj (85) are called Tawaal-e-mufassal.
The Awsaat-e- mufassal includes surahs from at-Taariq
(86) to al-Bayyinah (98). The surahs from az-Zilzaal (99)
to the end of the Holy Qur’aan are in the Qasaar-e- mufassal.
Q. Is this qiraa’ah the
sunnah for the imaam only or for the munfarid as well?
A. It is sunnah for both
the imaam and the munfarid.
Q. What if one leaves this sunnah
qiraa’ah while in residence?
A. It is allowed.
Q. Is a particular surah
fixed for a particular prayer in such a way that qiraa’ah of any other surah
is not permitted?
A. No. No surah is fixed in
this way. The Shari’ah gives permission to recite whatever surah one
likes. Fixing certain surahs for some particular prayers by someone is
against the Shari’ah.
Q. Recitation of what surahs
is masnoon in the sunnah prayers of Fajr?
A. In the first rak’ah of
sunnah the Holy Prophet ()
used to recite Surah al-Kaafiroon - (109),
and Surah Tawheed - (or
Ikhlaas – 112) in the second rak’ah.
Q. Recitation of what surah
is sunnah in Witr?
A. Reading in the first rak’ah
of Surah al-A’laa - (87),
al-Kaafiroon in the second rak’ah, and Surah at-Tawheed
in the third rak’ah have been attributed to the Holy Prophet ().
Q. What is Imaamat?
A. Imaamat means to be at
the head of something. One who leads the prayers with all others following him
is called the “Imaam”.
Q. What is Jamaa’at?
A. Jamaa’at is the saying
of prayers by many persons together in which the leader is the imaam and
the others who follow him are called muqtadi.
Q. Is Jamaa’at a fard,
waajib, or sunnah?
A. Jamaa’ah is Sunnah
Mu’akkadah (for men). It is very much emphasized. Some of the ‘ulamaa
even consider it fard and some waajib. There is no doubt
that Jamaa’ah is most beneficial.
Q. What are the benefits of
performing prayers in Jamaa’at?
A. First of all, one gets 27 times
more blessings for only one prayer when it is offered in jamaa’at at a
mosque. Muslims meet five times a day and this creates mutual love and unity.
People develop love for worship and prayers, taking the example of others. One
who says prayers in jamaa’at puts his heart into namaaz. The
prayers of the sinful become more acceptable by joining the praying with other
pious and devoted persons. The ignorant can easily learn about the rules of
Shari’ah from the learned. It gives the opportunity to know better about the
poor and needy people of the community. It also enhances the dignity of the
prayers. There are many other benefits also.
Q. Who are not required to
attend the Jamaa’at?
A. Women, children, sick persons,
those nursing the sick, the lame, the maimed, very old people and the blind are
not bound to attend the jamaa’at.
Q. What are the excuses which
permit healthy persons not to attend Jamaa’at?
A. Heavy rains, dirty and muddy
roads, extremely cold weather, a stormy night, travel when the time for
departure of the train or ship is near, the need to urinate or pass stool, and
also when one is very hungry and food is served. All these excuses remove the
emphasis of attendance in jamaa’at.
Q. In which prayers Jamaa’at
is sunnah mu’akkadah?
A. It is sunnah mu’akkadah
in all fard prayers. For Taraaweeh of Ramadaan
it is sunnah kifaayah. Jamaa’at for the Witr prayer in
Ramadaan is mustahab.
Q. What is the least number for Jamaa’at?
A. Two people- one to be the imaam
and the other muqtadi. The muqtadi should stand to the right of
the imaam. The imaam should stand ahead in front of the row when
there are two or more muqtadis.
Q. In what manner should people
stand for Jamaa’at?
A. People should stand close to
each other and in a straight row. There should be no space left in between.
Small children should stand in the back row. It is makrooh to include
children in the men’s row. The women’s row should come behind the children.
Q. If the imaam’s
prayer becomes faasid (invalid), will the prayers of the muqtadis
be all right?
A. When the imaam’s
prayer becomes faasid, the prayers of the muqtadis also suffer the
same result. It is necessary for the muqtadis to repeat the prayers.
Q. Who deserves to be the imaam?
A. In order: first an ‘aalim,
or a man who knows the rules of prayers best and is also a man of good deeds;
then a person who can recite the Holy Qur’aan nicely; then a pious person;
then the oldest person; then the noblest and kindest; then the most dignified
and best-looking; and last of all, the man of a high family.
Q. If there is a fixed imaam
in a mosque and a better man turns up at the time of jamaa’at, who
deserves to be the imaam?
A. The already in-charge imaam
will deserve the honor.
Q. Saying prayers behind what
sort of people is makrooh?
A. Those indulging in bid’ah,
a faasiq, an ignorant person, a slave, blind person, one who is not very
careful in observing the rules of Shari’ah, an illiterate and bastard. To
perform prayers behind these persons is makrooh. But if the slave is a
man of knowledge; and if the blind person is careful in the observance of
Shari’ah and has good knowledge or recites the Qur’aan Shareef nicely; and
if a bastard is an ‘aalim (scholar) and good-natured – when a better
person is not available we can say prayers behind any of them without any
Q. Behind whom is prayer not
acceptable at all?
A. The prayer is not accepted if
it is offered following a mad or drunken person, or a kaafir or mushrik.
Saying prayers by a major (adult) person behind a minor (child) person is not
acceptable. Also, men’s prayers said behind a woman are also not acceptable.
The prayers of one who has done wuduu’ or taken bath properly is not
accepted if he says it behind a person who has not done the same (for example,
has done tayammum).
The prayers of one whose satar (private parts) is covered is not
accepted if said behind one who has satar uncovered. One who is able to
do rukuu’ and sajdah cannot say prayers behind one doing these
things by gestures.
One who is saying fard prayers cannot say prayers behind one
who is saying nafl. In the same way, one cannot say fard
for Zuhr behind one who is saying the fard for ‘Asr.
Q. Is Taraaweeh allowed
if said behind a minor boy?
A. It is not allowed. If a boy is
15 years old, even though without any outward signs of majority, both Taraaweeh
and fard are allowed behind him.
Q. What are the Mufsidaat
are the factors which break the prayer (make it faasid), and make it
necessary to be repeated.
Q. What are these mufsidaat?
A. They are:
(1) To talk in prayer, knowingly or
unknowingly, a few words or many.
(2) To greet a person by “as-salaamu
‘alaykum” or by any other word of salutation and greeting while saying
(3) To reply to greetings or saying “yarhamukallaah”
to one who sneezes. Also saying “aameen” to a du’aa not
connected with one’s own prayer.
(4) To say “innaa lillaahi wa innaa ilayhi
raaji’oon” on some sad news, or “alhamdulillaah” or
“subhaanallaah” on hearing some good or strange news.
(5) To make noise or say, “Oh,” due to pain or
(6) Reminding and prompting a person other than
his own imaam in his qiraa’ah (recitation).
(7) To recite the Qur’aan while looking at the
(8) Making some great mistake in the recitation of
the Holy Qur’aan.
(9) Doing so much of an action that it gives the
impression to onlookers that one is doing something other than saying prayers.
This is called ‘Amal katheer.
(10) Eating or drinking, knowingly or unknowingly.
(11) To walk to the extent of the distance between two rows of jamaa’ah.
(12) To turn the chest away from the Qiblah without any reasonable excuse.
(13) Doing sajdah at an impure (dirty) place.
(14) Delay in covering the private parts of the body to the extent of
doing one rukuu’ if they become uncovered for some reason.
(15) Requesting Allaah for such a thing in du’aa as is generally
asked from human beings. For example, to say “Oh Allaah! Give me $100
(16) Utterances of pain or trouble.
(17) The laughter of an adult (mature) person.
(18) To move ahead of the imaam during the prayer.
Q. How many things are makrooh
(detested) in prayers?
A. Some of the makroohaat
in salaah are:
(1) Sadal, or hanging of cloth. For
example, one leaves ends of a sheet hanging loosely after placing it on the
head, or putting a gown on the shoulders instead of wearing it properly.
(2) To sweep with the hands to prevent the soiling
(3) Playing with the clothes or with parts of the
(4) Saying prayers in clothes in which people do
not ordinarily like to go out in.
(5) Saying prayers while having a coin or
something else in the mouth. If this prevents one from qiraa’ah then
the prayer will become faasid (invalid).
(6) Saying prayers bare-headed (for men), due to
laziness or carelessness.
(7) Saying prayers when one needs to use the
(8) Gathering the hair on the head and making a
pig-tail of it.
(9) To remove the pebbles, but this can be done
one time if it causes inconvenience in sajdah.
(10) To crack one’s fingers or put the fingers into the fingers of the
(11) To put the hands over the waist or back hips.
(12) Turning the face away from the Qiblah and looking here and there.
(13) Sitting like a dog by putting things near the belly and the knees
touching the chest while the hands are on the ground (for men).
(14) It is makrooh for men to lay both the arms and the wrists on
the ground in sajdah.
(15) Saying prayers while another person sits in front facing one.
(16) Replying to greetings with the motion of the head or hand.
(17) Sitting cross-legged without an excuse.
(18) Yawning knowingly and not trying to stop it as much as possible.
(19) Closing the eyes; but if it is done to put one’s heart into the
prayer it is allowed.
(20) The imaam’s standing under the mihraab (arch); but it
will not matter if his feet are outside it.
(21) Standing of the imaam by himself only at a height of one
handspan; but it is not makrooh if a few muqtadis are also
standing with him at that level.
(22) Standing alone behind a row when there is still a vacant place in the
(23) Saying prayers in clothes with pictures of living things on them.
(24) Saying prayers at a place where there is a picture above or on the
right or left side of the musalli (namaazi), or on the
place where one does sajdah.
(25) To count the aayaat, surahs, or tasbeehs on the
(26) Saying prayers with sheet or clothes wrapped on the body in such a
way that it makes it difficult to free the hands quickly.
(27) To yawn and stretch the arms to remove laziness.
(28) Doing sajdah on the rolls of the turban.
(29) Doing something against the Sunnah in the prayer.
Q. Are Witr prayers waajib
A. Witr is waajib.
It is emphasized as much as fard prayers. If one misses it, one
must say its qadaa (makeup) afterwards. It is most sinful to leave
it without an excuse or knowingly.
Q. How many rak’aat are
there in Witr prayer?
A. Three rak’aat. After
two rak’aat, sit in qa’dah and stand up after reciting at-tahiyyaat.
Then again sit in qa’dah (after the third rak’ah) and turn for
salaam after at-tahiyyaat, darood shareef and du’aa.
Q. What is the difference
between Witr and other prayers?
A. In Witr prayers Du’aa-e-Qunoot
is said in the third rak’ah. The order is like this: After Surah
Faatihah and another surah in the third rak’ah, say Allaahu
akbar, raising the hands up to the ears and folding them again. Then read Du’aa-e-Qunoot,
and after that perform rukuu’ and complete the prayer as usual.
Q. Should du’aa-e-qunoot
be said in a loud or low tone?
A. Whether the imaam, munfarid,
or muqtadi, one should recite du’aa-e-qunoot in a low voice.
Q. What if one has not learnt du’aa-e-qunoot
A. One may say any other du’aa,
Our Lord! Grant us the good of this world and the good of the
Hereafter and save us from the torment of the hell-fire.
Q. If the muqtadi has not
completed the du’aa-e-qunoot and the imaam goes into rukuu’,
what should the muqtadi do?
A. He should leave it and go into rukuu’
with the imaam.
Q. How many prayers are Sunnat-ul-Mu’akkadah?
A. Two rak’aat before
Fajr’s fard; four rak’aat with one salaam before
fard of Jumu’ah (Friday) and Zuhr prayers; two rak’aat
after the fard of Zuhr; four rak’aat with one salaam
after Jumu’ah prayers; two rak’aat after fard of
Maghrib prayers; two rak’aat after ‘Ishaa’s fard; and
twenty rak’aat of Taraaweeh in the month of Ramadaan are Sunnat-ul-Mu’akkadah.
Q. How many prayers are Sunnat
A. Four rak’aat before
‘Asr; two rak’aat after ‘Ishaa’s sunnat mu’akkadah;
six rak’aat after Maghrib’s sunnat mu’akkadah; two rak’aat
after Jumu’ah’s sunnat mu’akkadah; two rak’aat of Tahiyyat-ul-Wuduu’;
two rak’aat of Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid; four or eight rak’aat
of Chaasht (Duhaa) prayers; two rak’aat
after Witr; four, six or eight rak’aat of Tahajjud prayers; Salaat-ut-Tasbeeh;
Salaat-ul-Istikhaarah; Salaat-ut-Tawbah; Salaat-ul-Haajah;
etc.- all these prayers are Sunnat Ghayr Mu’akkadah.
Q. Where is it better to say sunnah
prayers – at home or in the mosque?
A. It is better to say all sunnah
and nawaafil at home, except some like Taraaweeh,
Tahiyyat-ul-Masjid, and prayers of solar eclipse.
Q. At what time is it makrooh
to say nafl prayers?
A. After subh-e-saadiq
and before the two rak’aat of fard of Fajr it is makrooh
to say nafl: only two rak’aat of sunnah should be said
After the fard of Fajr prayers until sunrise nafl are makrooh.
After the fard of ‘Asr until the time of the fading of
the sun all nafl are makrooh.
On all these three occasions, qadaa (makeup) for fard
and waajib prayers, prayers for the dead, and sajdah tilaawah are
But from the time the sun rises until it is a spear-length high, all prayers
are makrooh. It is also makrooh to say any prayers exactly at
midday, and from the time the sun begins fading until it sets. But if ‘Asr
prayers of that day have not been said by then, it is allowed to say them even
if the sun has faded or is setting down.
Sunnah and nafl prayers are makrooh at the time of the khutbah.
Q. What is meant by the changing
of color, or the fading, of the sun?
A. When the sun’s glow becomes
red and one can fix one’s eyes upon it without difficulty, it means the sun is
Q. Is Taraaweeh prayer sunnah
A. It is sunnat mu’akkadah
for men and women both and to say it in jamaa’ah is sunnat kifaayah.
That is, if a person says Taraaweeh at his home, while Taraaweeh
prayers are said in the neighboring mosque, the person who says it alone will
not be sinful. But if all the Muslims of the neighboring vicinity offer it alone
in their homes, all of them will be sinful (for not holding congregation).
Q. What is the time of Taraaweeh
A. The time for Taraaweeh
begins after ‘Ishaa prayer and lasts until before Fajr prayer. It can be said
before and after the Witr also (preferably before). If one fails to complete
one’s Taraaweeh along with the imaam, he can join the Witr
prayer in jamaa’ah and complete the Taraaweeh after the Witr.
Q. How many rak’aat are
there in Taraaweeh? Please explain in detail.
A. Twenty (20) rak’aat
with ten (10) salaam are masnoon. That is, one should have niyyah
for two rak’aat of Taraaweeh each time. And after every four rak’aat
of Taraaweeh it is mustahab to sit a while and take a rest.
Q. Should one recite something
or remain silent while one is sitting?
A. It is open to choice. One may
remain silent or recite Qur’aan Shareef or the tasbeeh of
Taraaweeh in a low voice, or say nafl prayers separately.
Q. How is it to complete the
Holy Qur’aan in the qiraa’ah of Taraaweeh prayers?
A. It is sunnah to complete
the Holy Qur’aan once in the whole month. It is even better (afdal)
to do it twice; thrice is even better. But the blessings of completing the Holy
Qur’aan twice or thrice depend on the fact that this much recitation does not
cause inconvenience to the musallis. In completing it once, however,
inconvenience of the worshippers is of no consideration (in that it should be
Q. Can we say Taraaweeh
A. It is makrooh to say
Taraaweeh sitting if one has the strength of qiyaam (standing up)
and can say them standing.
Q. While saying Taraaweeh
some people do not join the prayers from the beginning but at a time when the imaam
prepares to go into rukuu’- what sort of practice is this?
A. To do so is makrooh. One
should join at the beginning.
Q. If one does not get the jamaa’ah
for the fard of ‘Ishaa, is it allowed for him to say the fard
alone and then join the jamaa’ah for Taraaweeh?
A. It is allowed.
Q. What is Adaa and Qadaa?
A. Adaa is to say prayers
at the time fixed for them. Qadaa is saying fard or waajib
prayers after the time for them has passed. For example, Zuhr
prayers said at the time of Zuhr will be called Adaa; if
said after the Zuhr time, they will be Qadaa.
Q. Qadaa of what
prayers is waajib?
A. Qadaa of fard
is fard; of waajib is waajib; and of sunnah
Q. What sort of practice is it
to miss and to not say fard or waajib at the time fixed for
A. It is very sinful to
intentionally not say the fard, waajib, or sunnah
mu’akkadah prayers at the fixed time without any strong reason. The sin of
not saying fard at the correct time is extremely great. Then comes
the sin for missing sunnah. It is not, however, sinful if the time of
prayers passed unknowingly- that is, if one is asleep or even just forgot to say
Q. When should one say the Qadaa
for fard or waajib?
A. When one remembers or when one
wakes up. It is a sin to delay. If one wakes up or remembers at a makrooh
time (of prayer), then let the makrooh time pass and then say the Qadaa.
Q. How to do niyyah for Qadaa?
A. This should be done in this
way: “It is my intention to say the Qadaa of such-and-such
day’s Fajr or Zuhr fard.” Merely intending to say Qadaa
of Zuhr(or whatever it is) prayer, without making it definite, is not
Q. What to intend if there are
plenty of missed prayers due and one does not remember the days? For example,
one has not said any prayers for one or two months and he remembers only that
some Fajr or Zuhr prayers are Qadaa, yet he does not
remember the month in which the prayers were missed.
A. In such a case, to say Qadaa
of Fajr prayers, he should will, “I am going to say the Qadaa of
the first or second or the last Fajr prayers from the dues of all the Fajr
prayers from me.” Niyyah for all Qadaa prayers should be
Q. Where is it better to say Qadaa
prayers, in a mosque or at home?
A. When one has to say his Qadaa
prayers, it is better to say them at home. They can also be said in a mosque.
But he should not tell others that he has said Qadaa prayers. It
is makrooh to talk to others about one’s Qadaa prayers.
Q. What are those sunnahs
whose Qadaa is also sunnah?
A. If the sunnahs of Fajr
along with the fard are Qadaa, they should be said
as Qadaa along with the fard, but before the sun
crosses the meridian (zawaal). If said after zawaal, only the Qadaa
of the fard will be said. If only the sunnahs are Qadaa,
there is no need to say them. It is makrooh to say them after the fard
of Fajr but before the sunrise. If they are said after sunrise, then it is not makrooh
but they will be treated as nafl, not as sunnah.
Q. What is the order for the
four Zuhr sunnahs if they are not said before the fard?
A. The sunnah of Zuhr
or Jumu’ah prayers, if not said before the fard, can be said
after it, either before the two sunnah following the fard
or after them. Both of these ways are allowed. But it is better to say them
after the two sunnah.
Q. Who is called a mudrik?
A. One who says full prayers from
the first rak’ah to the last behind the imaam is called a mudrik.
Q. Who is a masbooq?
A. Masbooq is one who has
missed one or more rak’aat before he joined the jamaa’at
behind the imaam.
Q. Who is called laahiq?
A. Laahiq is one who
joined the jamaa’at in the beginning, and later on missed one or more rak’aat.
For instance, one fell asleep and slept so long that during this time the imaam
completed one or two more rak’aat.
Q. When and how should a masbooq
say his missed rak’aat?
A. He should continue to say the
prayers with the imaam till the end. When the imaam turns for salaam,
the masbooq should not do so but stand up and complete the missed rak’aat.
This should be done in a way as if he had begun the prayers afresh. For example,
if you miss only one rak’ah, stand up after the imaam turns for salaam
and first read thanaa, ta’awwudh, and bismillaah, and
recite Surah Faatihah and another surah. Then sit in qa’dah
as usual. After completing one rak’ah, turn for salaam. This
method is to be followed for every missed rak’ah of prayers.
And when you miss two rak’aat in Zuhr, ‘Asr, ‘Ishaa, or Fajr
prayers, say thanaa, ta’awwudh, and tasmiyah and recite Faatihah
and any other surah in the first rak’ah. In the second rak’ah,
after Faatihah and another surah, perform rukuu’, sajdah,
and qa’dah and turn for salaam.
If you got only one rak’ah in Zuhr, ‘Asr, or ‘Ishaa with the imaam,
then perform your three rak’aat in this way: Say the first rak’ah
with Faatihah and another surah and then do qa’dah. Then
say the other rak’ah with Faatihah and any other surah
and finish one more rak’ah with the recitation of only Faatihah.
Then sit in qa’dah and turn for salaam.
If you get only one rak’ah in Maghrib with the imaam, then
say one rak’ah with Faatihah and a surah and do qa’dah
and then again say the second rak’ah with Faatihah and a surah
and after performing qa’dah, turn for salaam.
So, if you get only one rak’ah with the imaam then do qa’dah
after one more rak’ah, no matter what prayer it is.
Q. What should the masbooq
do if he stands up as the imaam turns for salaam but the imaam
does Sajdah Sahw (discussed next)?
A. He should return and join in sajdah
sahw with the imaam.
Q. What is the order if the masbooq
forgets and turns for salaam with the imaam?
A. If he does so with the imaam
or even before, then no sajdah sahw is waajib on him and he should
complete his prayer. But if he turns for salaam after the imaam
has done so, it is waajib for him to do sajdah sahw at the end of
completing his prayer.
Q. What and how should the laahiq
complete his missed rak’aat?
A. If the laahiq
misses any rak’aat due to certain reason, for example, sleep, he should
say the rak’aat he missed separately, when he wakes up, in the way as
he is still saying his prayers behind the imaam. That is, he should not
read qiraa’ah. After completing the missed rak’aat he should
join the imaam and complete the remaining prayer. But if the imaam
has finished his prayers, then he should complete his remaining rak’aat
separately as if he was saying his prayers behind the imaam. During this
time, if he commits any mistake unknowingly, he should not do sajdah sahw,
because he is still a muqtadi and no sajdah sahw is done by a muqtadi
alone for any mistake.
Q. What is Sajdah Sahw?
A. Sahw means forgetting.
Sometimes due to forgetfulness there is some addition or deletion which causes a
deficiency in the prayer and to make up for the deficiency two sajdahs
are done in the last qa’dah. This is called sajdah sahw.
Q. How is Sajdah Sahw
A. In the last qa’dah
after tashahhud turn for salaam on the right, then say takbeer
and do two sajdahs. Say tasbeeh three times in each sajdah.
After the first sajdah raise the head saying takbeer. Sit up
straight and then do the second sajdah. After saying takbeer and
sitting up straight again, say at-tahiyyaat (tashahhud), darood
shareef and du’aa and then turn for both the salaam.
Q. How is it if one also says darood
shareef and du’aa after tashahhud, before the salaam
for sajdah sahw?
A. Some ‘ulamaa
(scholars) consider as a precaution that one should say tashahhud, darood
and du’aa all before sajdah sahw and then read all the three
again after it. Thus, it is better to say them but there is no harm even if it
is not done.
Q. Is Sajdah Sahw waajib
in all prayers or only in fard prayers?
A. The ruling is the same for all
Q. What if one does not turn for
salaam even to one side before doing the sajdah sahw?
A. To do so is makrooh tanzeehi.
Q. What is the ruling if Sajdah
Sahw is done after turning for both the salaams?
A. According to one narration it
is allowed. But the more certain way is to turn for salaam only to one
side. If one has turned to both sides then one should not do sajdah sahw
but repeat the prayer.
Q. What makes Sajdah Sahw
A. If any waajib of the
prayer is delayed or missed, or there is delay in a fard, or wrong
priority was given to any fard or a fard was
repeated (like doing rukuu’ twice), or by changing the manner of any waajib,
sajdah sahw becomes waajib (necessary).
Q. What if these things which
make Sajdah Sahw waajib are done knowingly?
A. If done knowingly, sajdah
sahw will not remove the deficiency. It will be waajib to repeat the
Q. If a number of things, each
of which causes sajdah sahw to become waajib, occur in a single salaah,
then how many times should sajdah sahw be done?
A. Only once. The two sajdahs
of sahw are enough (for all such deficiencies).
Q. What changes in qiraa’ah
cause sajdah sahw to become waajib?
A. Sajdah sahw is waajib
(1) if Surah Faatihah is left out in the first or second, or both the rak’aat
of a fard prayer, or in one or more rak’aat of waajib,
sunnah or nafl prayer. (2) By reciting all over again the Surah
Faatihah or a large part of it in these rak’aat. (3) To read a surah
before Surah Faatihah. (4) By not reciting a surah with Surah
Faatihah in all the rak’aat of every fard, waajib,
sunnah, or nafl, except the third and fourth rak’aat of fard
prayer, on the condition that all these things mentioned have been done
Q. If one forgets to do ta’deel
of arkaan, will sajdah sahw be waajib or not?
A. Sajdah will be waajib.
Q. What if the first qa’dah
A. If one is going to stand up but
is almost in a sitting posture, then he should sit down and needs no sajdah
sahw. If one has almost risen, he should leave the qa’dah and stand
up. He should then do sajdah sahw in qa’dah akheerah. This will
complete the prayer.
Q. What other things make Sajdah
A. (1) Doing rukuu’ twice
in one rak’ah. (2) Doing three sajdahs. (3) Leaving out tashahhud
in the first or the last qa’dah. (4) To recite darood shareef
after tashahhud in the first qa’dah up to or beyond “Allaahumma
salli ‘alaa muhammadin,” or by sitting silent up to this point. (5) If
the imaam says the prayers in a low voice when it should be said aloud.
(6) If the imaam says the prayers aloud when it should be in a low voice.
Sajdah sahw becomes waajib on the condition that any of these have
Q. What if the muqtadi
commits a sahw in his prayers behind the imaam?
A. Sajdah sahw is not waajib
on a muqtadi for his sahw (forgetfulness).
Q. What if a masbooq
commits a sahw in completing his remaining prayer?
A. It is waajib on him to
do sajdah sahw in the last qa’dah of his prayer.
Q. What is Sajdah Tilaawah?
A. Tilaawah means
recitation. There are certain points in the Noble Qur’aan the reading or
hearing of which necessitates sajdah. This sajdah is called Sajdah
Q. How many points are there,
the hearing or reading of which makes a sajdah waajib?
A. There are fourteen points in
the whole of the Holy Qur’aan. They are also called the Fourteen Sajdahs.
Q. If one reads an aayah
of sajdah outside of prayer when and how should he do the sajdah?
A. It is better to do sajdah
when the aayah of sajdah is read or heard, but it is not a sin if
one does not do it at that time. Yet, much delay is makrooh.
The preferred way of doing sajdah outside of prayer is to stand up and
then, saying takbeer, go into sajdah. Then stand up again, saying takbeer
again. Sajdah will be complete even if one goes to sajdah while
sitting and stands up after performing sajdah.
Q. What are the conditions of Sajdah
A. The conditions of sajdah
tilaawah are the same as those of salaah:
Q. What makes Sajdah Tilaawah
faasid (null and void)?
A. The same things which make the
prayer faasid also make the sajdah tilaawah faasid.
Q. What is the ruling if one
recites an aayat of sajdah two times or more than that?
A. If one reads or hears some
particular aayah of sajdah two or more times in a gathering, only
one sajdah tilaawah will be waajib.
Q. What if two aayaat of sajdah
are read in one gathering or one aayah is read in two different
A. A sajdah will be waajib
for every different aayah of sajdah read in one gathering, or as
many times as one aayah has been read in different gatherings.
Q. How is it if one skips the aayah
of sajdah while reading the Holy Qur’aan and only reads the parts
before and after it?
A. Such an act is makrooh
Q. How is it if a person reading
the Holy Qur’aan is sitting at a place where many people can hear him, and he
reads the aayah of sajdah in a low voice so that the other people
do not hear?
A. It is allowed and in such a
situation it is even better to read it in a low voice.
Q. In what conditions is a sick
person allowed to say his or her prayers sitting?
A. When the sick person has not
strength enough to stand up or it causes him great pain, or it may aggravate the
trouble, or he staggers and there is possibility of his falling down, or when he
has the strength to stand up but cannot go into rukuu’ or sujood:
in all these conditions he can say the prayer sitting. And if one can do rukuu’
and sajdah and not other things with rukuu’ and sajdah
then he can say his prayers by making gestures for rukuu’ and sajdah
by bending his head. For the gesture for sajdah he should bend his head
more than for rukuu’.
Q. What if a person cannot do
full qiyaam but can stand up for a while?
A. He should stand up as long as
Q. What if a patient cannot say
his prayers even sitting down?
A. He should say it lying down,
like this: Lie down on your back with legs towards the qiblah. Do not
stretch them. Knees should be vertical, with a pillow under the head to rest it
at a higher level. Say your prayer by making gestures. Bend your head for rukuu’
and sajdah. This is the best and preferred posture. It is also allowed to
lie on the right side with face towards the qiblah or on the left side
similarly and say the prayer with gestures. But the better posture of these two
is to lie down resting on the right side.
Q. What is the ruling if the
patient has no strength even to move his head?
A. If the patient has no strength
even to move his head for gestures, he should delay the prayers. If this
condition continues for more than a day and night, he will not be bound to say qadaa
for those prayers, but if within a day and night, or a lesser period than that,
he gains the strength of moving his head for gestures, he will have to say qadaa
for those (five or less) prayers.
Q. What is the length of journey
which makes a person a musaafir (traveler)?
A. One who takes a journey which
can be covered in three days walking is a musaafir in the eyes of Sharee’ah.
Three days do not mean that one travels all day long, but each day’s journey
is taken from the morning till noon. The speed is normal and day means the
Q. What is meant by normal speed
and how many miles do the three days traveling make?
A. Normal speed means the speed of
walking. It is right to calculate three days of traveling as three manzil,
but to make it easy, this is regarded as equal to 48 miles.
Q. What if one travels by train,
horse, car, etc. with the intention of going to a distance where one on
foot reaches in three days?
A. He will be a musaafir,
however much faster he may reach that distance.
Q. In what ways are the musaafir’s
A. The musaafir says only
two rak’aat instead of four in Zuhr, ‘Asr, and ‘Ishaa. There is,
however, no change in Fajr, Maghrib, and Witr prayers. They remain the same.
Q. What is saying of two rak’aat,
instead of the prayer of four, called?
A. It is called Qasr
Q. From when should a musaafir
A. From the time when he is out of
his home town.
Q. For how long should a musaafir
A. One should do qasr
as long as he is traveling and does not intend to stay in a city or village for
a period of 15 days. But from the very moment he intends to stay for 15 days (or
more) at any place he should start saying prayers in full.
Q. What if one originally
intended to stay for three or four days at a place, but the work did not finish
and his stay was prolonged to two or three more days and again the work was not
finished and he again intended to stay for two or three more days and in this
way fifteen days elapsed?
A. Prolonged stay does not matter
when the intention in the first instance was for less than fifteen days. One
should continue qasr till he is sure that he will have to stay for
more than fifteen days.
Q. What if the traveler says the
prayer of four rak’aat in full?
A. If one sat in qa’dah
after the second rak’ah, the prayers may be corrected by sajdah sahw
in the qa’dah akheerah. But one who does it intentionally will be
sinful. If done unknowingly, then there is no harm. In such cases the first two rak’aat
will be treated as fard and the last two as nafl. But if
one did not sit in qa’dah after the second rak’ah then all the
four rak’aat will be treated as nawaafil. The fard
should be said all over again.
Q. What if a musaafir
says his prayers behind a muqeem (one who is in his home town)?
A. A musaafir saying
prayers behind a muqeemimaam should say four rak’aat.
Q. What if the imaam is a
musaafir and the muqtadi is muqeem?
A. The musaafir imaam
should complete his prayers with salaam after two rak’aat and
should tell the muqeem muqtadis to complete their prayers, saying,
“Complete your prayers; I am a musaafir.” Then the muqtadi
should stand up without salaam and complete the other two rak’aat.
They should not recite Faatihah and another surah in these two rak’aat
and no sajdah sahw should be done for any sahw.
Q. Is saying prayers allowed on
a moving train or a ship?
A. It is allowed. If one can say
prayers standing up without fear of wheeling or falling down, the prayers should
be said standing up. If this is not possible, prayers can be said while sitting
down. If the train or ship turns in a way that the musalli’s face is
turned away from the qiblah, he should at once turn the face towards the qiblah,
otherwise the prayers will not be accepted.
Q. Are Jum’ah (or Jumu’ah)
prayers fard, waajib, or sunnah?
A. Jum’ah prayers are fard
and more emphasis has been laid upon them than on Zuhr. There are no Zuhr
prayers on Friday. The Jum’ah prayer has been fixed in place of Zuhr
Q. Are Jum’ah prayers fard
on all Muslims?
A. They are fard on
all free, adult, mentally fit, healthy, and muqeem (non-travelling) men.
They are not obligatory upon the children, slaves, mad persons, sick, blind,
maimed, and others with similar excuse, musaafir, and women.
Q. Will the prayers be valid if
travelers, blind, maimed, or women join them?
A. It will be all right and those
people will also be free from their responsibility of saying Zuhr
Q. What are the conditions for
A. There are several conditions
for Jum’ah prayers:
(1) The Jum’ah prayers should be conducted in
a city, big village or a town like the city, or at a populated place surrounding
a city having a cemetery attached or a cantonment. It is not proper to say the
Jum’ah prayers in a small village.
(2) Should be offered at Zuhr time.
(3) Khutbah (address or speech by the imaam)
should be delivered before the prayer.
(4) Should be offered in jamaa’ah
(5) There should be idhn-e-‘aam
(open permission for anyone who wishes to attend and join).
If all these five conditions are found, the saying of the Jum’ah prayers
will be valid.
Q. What is the masnoon
method of delivering the khutbah?
A. Before the prayers, the imaam
should sit on the mimbar (pulpit- a raised platform in the mosque) and
the mu’adhdhin should call out the adhaan in his presence. Then
the imaam should stand up and deliver the khutbah, facing the
people. After the first khutbah, he should sit down for a while, then
stand up again for the second khutbah. After this, the imaam
should step down from the mimbar and stand in front of the mihraab
(arch). The mu’adhdhin should then say takbeer (iqaamah)
and those present should stand up and offer the prayers with the imaam.
Q. At what place should the adhaan
for the khutbah be said?
A. In front of the khateeb
(the one who gives the khutbah): near the mimbar, or from the
second or third row of musallis, or at the end of the rows or from
outside the mosque. It is allowed in all the ways (as long as it is in front of
Q. How is it to deliver the khutbah
in English or any other language, or to quote in other languages during the khutbah?
A. Delivering the khutbah
in any language except Arabic is makrooh. The fard is
fulfilled but such practices result in great loss of blessings.
Q. What things are not allowed
during the khutbah?
A. (1) Talking, (2) offering sunnah
and nafl prayers, (3) eating, (4) drinking, (5) replying to any talk, and
(6) reciting Qur’aan. All those things which disturb khutbah become makrooh
from the minute the imaam prepares to deliver the khutbah.
Q. What is meant by the
condition of jamaa’ah for saying Jum’ah prayers?
A. In Jum’ah prayers, it is
compulsory to have at least three men and the imaam to offer the prayers,
otherwise the Jum’ah prayers will not be valid.
Q. What is meant by idhn-e-‘aam?
A. Idhn means
permission. Idhn-e-‘aam means permission to everyone who wishes
to join in with the prayers. It is not proper to say Jum’ah prayers at a place
where only some particular persons, not everybody, are allowed to join the
Q. How many rak’aat are
there in the fard prayer of Jum’ah?
A. Two rak’aat, whether
one joins from the beginning or in the second rak’ah, or in the last qa’dah:
In every case, only two rak’aat should be completed.
Q. What things are mustahab
or sunnah on the ‘Eid days?
A. (1) To take a bath and do miswaak.
(2) To put on
one’s best clothes.
(3) To use
(4) To eat
dates or any other sweets before going for the ‘Eid-ul-Fitr prayer.
(5) To give sadaqat-ul-fitr
before going for the prayer.
(6) To eat
the meat of sacrifice of one’s own offering, after the ‘Eid-ul-Adha
(7) To say
the ‘Eid prayer at the Eidgah (the large place fixed for ‘Eid prayers).
(8) To go on
(9) To go by
one route to the prayer and return by a different one.
(10) Not to
say any nafl at home or at the Eidgah before the ‘Eid prayers, nor to
say any nafl at the Eidgah after the ‘Eid prayers.
Q. How is it to say takbeer
while going for ‘Eid-ul-Fitr prayers?
A. On ‘Eid-ul-Fitr, one
should say takbeer in a low voice. It is mustahab (for men) to say
takbeer aloud while going for ‘Eid-ul-Adha prayers.
Q. Are ‘Eid prayers waajib
A. Prayers for both the ‘Eid are
waajib for all those on whom the Jum’ah prayers are fard.
The conditions for ‘Eid prayers are the same as those for Jum’ah. But the khutbah
for ‘Eid is not fard nor is it to be said before the prayers.
The khutbah after the prayers is sunnah.
Q. How many rak’aat are
there for both the ‘Eid prayers and how are they said?
A. There are two rak’aat
in each of the two ‘Eid prayers. There is no adhaan or takbeer (iqaamah)
before. First of all the niyyah should be made, for example, “I am
going to say ‘Eid-ul-Fitr (or Adha) prayers, which are waajib,
along with six extra takbeeraat, behind this imaam.” Fold the
hands after the takbeer-e-tahreemah and say the thanaa.
Then, raising both hands up to the ears, bring them down (let them hang), after
saying another “Allaahu akbar.” Do the same a second time. For the
third time, raise the hands up to the ears and while saying takbeer fold
them again. The imaam then reads ta’awwudh, tasmiyah, Surah
Faatihah (aloud), and another surah (aloud) and then goes into rukuu’.
When everyone stands up for the second rak’ah, the imaam
should do the qiraa’ah and after that says takbeer. Everyone
should raise their hands up to their ears and let them down, and again the hands
should be raised up to the ears for the second takbeer and let down. For
the third takbeer the hands should be raised to the ears and let down.
Then, saying a fourth takbeer (without raising hands), everyone should go
into rukuu’ and complete the prayer as usual. After the prayer is
complete, the imaam should stand up and say the khutbah and
everyone should sit silently and listen.
There are two khutbahs also for the ‘Eid and the sitting of the imaam
for a little while in between the two is masnoon.
Q. What are the special
instructions for ‘Eid-ul-Adha?
A. (1) Saying takbeer aloud
on the way to the Eidgah.
(2) Not to
eat anything before the prayers.
(3) The takbeeraat-e-tashreeq
Q. What is meant by takbeeraat-e-tashreeq?
A. Those takbeeraat which
are said after the fard prayers during the days of Tashreeq.
Q. What are the days of Tashreeq?
A. The 11th, 12th,
and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah are the days of Tashreeq.
Q. When are the takbeeraat-e-tashreeq
A. The day of ‘Arafah, the day
of Nahr (sacrifice), and the three days of Tashreeq are the five
days in all, during which they are waajib. The day of ‘Arafah is the 9th
of Dhul-Hijjah and the day of Nahr is the 10th.
The takbeer begins from the Fajr of the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah
and it is waajib to say it after the fard of every prayer
up until the ‘Asr of the 13th. The takbeer should be said
aloud just after the salaam of the fard prayers. Women
should not say it aloud. The muqtadis should say the takbeer even
when the imaam forgets.
Q. What is the takbeer-e-tashreeq
and for how many times is it waajib to say these?
A. Takbeer-e-tashreeq is:
Allâh is the greatest; Allâh is the greatest; There is no
god except Allâh; And Allâh is the greatest; Allâh is the greatest; And for
Allâh is all praise.
It is waajib to say this once after every fard prayer.
Q. Is it waajib, sunnah,
or fard to say prayers for the dead?
A. The Janaazah prayer
(prayer for the dead) is fard kifaayah. If one or more
people say it, it will absolve the responsibility of all others. But everyone
will be sinful if nobody says it.
Q. What are the conditions for
saying the prayer for the dead?
A. (1) The dead person should be
(2) The body
should be taahir.
(3) The kafan
(shroud) should be taahir.
(4) The satar
should be covered.
(5) The body
of the dead person should be in front of the musallis.
These are the conditions for the dead person’s body. For the one who says
these prayers, all the conditions of ordinary prayers hold, except for any
Q. What is the method of saying
A. Stand in a row for the prayer.
If there are many people, it is better to have three, five or seven rows. After
the rows are formed, make the niyyah for the Salaat-ul-Janaazah,
for example, “I pray to Allâh for this dead person behind this imaam.”
Then the imaam should say the takbeer aloud and the muqtadis
in a low voice, raising both hands up to the ears. Fold them below the navel.
Then the imaam and muqtadis should both say the thanaa
in a low voice. In thanaa, it is better to add,
wa jalla thanaa-uka
“And exalted be Your praise,”
after “ - wa
ta’aalaa jadduka.” Then the imaam should say the takbeer
aloud and the muqtadis in a low voice, this time without raising the
hands. The imaam and muqtadis should then say the darood
which are recited in the last qa’dah of other prayers in a low voice.
Then, like the second takbeer, the third takbeer should be said
(without raising hands). If the dead person is an adult man or woman, the imaam
and muqtadis should read this du’aa:
O Allâh! Forgive our living and our dead; our present and our absent; our
big and our small; our men and our women. O Allâh! Whoever among us You keep
alive, keep them alive on the path of Islam. And whoever You cause to die, let
him die with faith.
If the Janaazah is of a minor boy, this du’aa should be recited:
O Allâh! Make this child a source of our salvation and the pain of his
parting a source of reward and benefits for us. Make him an intercession for us,
the intercession which You have accepted.
If the Janaazah is for a minor girl, recite the same du’aa with
these little changes (for “her” instead of “him”): Instead of the three
phrases of “ - waj-‘alhu”,
say “ - waj-‘alhaa,”
and say “ - shaafi’ata(n)w-wa
mushaffa’atan” instead of “shaafi’a(n)w-wa mushaffa’an.”
The meaning of the du’aa remains the same.
After this the imaam should say a fourth takbeer aloud and the muqtadis
in a low voice. Lastly, the imaam should turn for salaam in a loud
voice and the muqtadis in a low voice, first to the right and then to the
(Note, the entire prayer is said standing.)
Q. What to do after completing
A. Carry the Janaazah (bier) away
as soon as the prayer is completed. If one reads the kalimah when one is
carrying the dead, it should only be said in one’s heart. To say it aloud is makrooh.
One should ponder over the first stage of the dead, the grave, the taking of
account by Allâh, and the undependability of this world. And one should also
pray for the salvation and peace of the dead in one’s heart. After reaching
the graveyard, the dead should be buried.
 Although commonly spelled
“surah” in English, it is pronounced “soo-rah”.
 “Masnoon” =
established in the Sunnah.
 This is the most lenient
ruling. According to many scholars, it is not permissible at all to deliver
the khutbah in any language other than Arabic.
 Such as a private, closed
residence or a prison.