Part IV: Ta'leem-ul-Imaan (Islaami 'Aqaa'id)
(Teachings of the Faith, or Islamic Beliefs)
Q. What is meant by the word Allâh?
A. Allâh is the name of
the Being Who is Waajibul-Wujood, and Who is the embodiment of all the Sifaat-e-Kamaaliyah.
Q. What is meant by Waajibul-Wujood?
A. Waajibul-Wujood is the
Eternal Being whose presence is necessary and whose absence is impossible. Waajibul-Wujood
means one who has been from all time before and will remain for ever.
There is no beginning for Him nor an end. He is self-existent, since anything
which comes into being or is present due to another’s creation cannot be Waajibul-Wujood.
Thus, according to the teachings of Islam, Allâh is Waajibul-Wujood.
He alone and no other being in the universe is Waajibul-Wujood.
Q. What is meant by Sifaat-e-Kamaaliyah?
A. Since Allâh is Waajibul-Wujood,
and one who is Waajibul-Wujood must be perfect, the perfect qualities or
attributes which are essential for Waajibul-Wujood are established
(proved) to be in Him. These qualities are called Sifaat-e-Kamaaliyah.
Q. What is the being called
which has existed from all time and will remain forever?
A. Such a being is called Qadeem.
Q. What beings other than Allâh
A. Only Allâh and His qualities
are Qadeem and nothing else is Qadeem.
Q. When nothing except Allâh
existed from all times, how did Allâh create the heaven, earth, and all other
A. The whole universe was created
by the order of Allâh and His power. He did not need anything to create the
earth and heaven. Had He stood in need of something, how could He be Waajibul-Wujood?
Remember: Allâh is Waajibul-Wujood and He never requires anything for
His work, nor any help from others.
Q. What are the Sifaat-e-Kamaaliyah,
or the perfect qualities of Allâh?
A. Some of them are: Wahdat,
Qidam, Wujoob-e-Wujood, Hayaat, Qudrat, ‘Ilm, Iraadah, Sam’a, Basar,
Kalaam, Khulq, Takween, and so on.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Wahdat?
A. Wahdat means oneness. It
is a quality of Allâh. That is, He is unique in His person and also in His
qualities. Tawheed means believing in the oneness of Allâh and
having faith in Him and accepting Him as One.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Qidam
and what is meant by Wujoob-e-Wujood?
A. Qidam is to be Qadeem,
which means to existed from all times and for all times. Wujoob-e-Wujood
means to be Waajibul-Wujood.
Q. What is meant by Azali
A. That which has no beginning is
called Azali and that which has no end and remains for ever is called Abadi.
So, Allâh is both Azali and Abadi and that is what is meant by Qadeem.
Q. What is Hayaat?
A. Hayaat means
life. That is, Allâh is alive. To be alive is one of His proven qualities.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Qudrat?
A. Qudrat means power. Allâh
is All-Powerful and has the power of creating, maintaining and destroying the
universe and then again bringing it into existence.
Q. What is Sifat-e-‘Ilm?
A. ‘Ilm means to know.
That is, Allâh knows everything about everything. Nothing big or small is out
of His knowledge. He knows about every particle and He knows about everything
before its being and after its extinction. He hears and sees fully well, even
the movement of an ant in the darkness of the night. The ideas that creep into
human beings’ hearts are all known to Allâh. ‘Ilm-e-Ghayb (knowledge
of the Unseen) is a quality of Allâh only.
Q. What is Iraadah?
A. Iraadah means to do
something by one’s own power and will. Allâh can create anything He likes by
His power, and destroy in the same way. All things in the world happen by His
power and Iraadah (Will). Nothing in the universe is beyond His power. He
is never helpless and can always do what He likes.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Sam’a
A. Sam’a means to hear
and Basar means to see. Allâh sees and hears everything. But He has no
ears nor eyes, nor any organs like other creatures. He hears the lightest sound
and sees the smallest of things. Distance or nearness, darkness or light makes
no difference to Him.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Kalaam?
A. Kalaam means speech.
Speaking is Allâh’s proven quality, but He requires no tongue like His
Q. How does Allâh talk when He
has no tongue?
A. Allâh’s creatures cannot
talk without a tongue- they depend on organs and provisions, but Allâh does not
depend upon anything. He does not need a tongue to speak. Had He stood in need,
He could not have been Waajibul-Wujood.
Q. What is Sifat-e-Khalq
A. Khalq means creation. Takween
is to bring into existence. The qualities of Allâh are that He is Khaaliq
(Creator) and Mukawwin (One who has the power to bring into existence) of
the whole universe.
Q. Besides these qualities, are
there any more qualities of Allâh?
A. Yes, there are many more
qualities of Allâh, such as the power to deprive of life, to bring into life,
to sustain, to bring honor, disgrace, etc. All the qualities of Allâh
are Azali, Abadi, and Qadeem, in which no change, addition,
or reduction can be made.
Q. It has been said previously
that the Holy Qur’aan took 23 years to be revealed completely. In the Holy
Qur’aan, Allâh says:
The month of Ramadaan in which was revealed the Qur’aan…
In another place, in the Holy Qur’aan, it is said:
Lo! We revealed it on the Night of Power.
These three statements seem to contradict each other. Which of these is
A. All these three things are
correct. There were two stages of the revelation of the Holy Qur’aan.
First, the Holy Qur’aan was sent as a whole to the first Heaven from Lawh-e-Mahfooz
(the Protected Tablet), then it was sent to our Prophet ()
in parts from time to time as the need arose. Thus, in these two Ayaat of
the Holy Qur’aan, the first stage of revelation is the one in which the Holy
Qur’aan was sent from Lawh-e-Mahfooz to the first Heaven.
This was a night in the month of Ramadaan. Revelation in 23 years refers to the
second stage of revelation when the Holy Qur’aan came to the Holy Prophet ()
from the first Heaven over 23 years. Thus, all these three things are correct
and they are not contradictory.
Q. When did the revelation of
the Holy Qur’aan begin and at what place did the revelation of the Holy
A. Near Makkah Mu’azzamah
there are several mountains. In one of them called Hira, the Holy
Prophet () used to
go into a cave and offer prayers to Allâh. He would remain there for days.When
his provision of food would finish, he would come back home and take back
provisions of food for days and would go back to offer prayers to Allâh in
loneliness there. It was in this cave of Hira that the revelation
of the Holy Qur’aan began, when the Prophet ()
was 40 years old.
Q. How did the revelation of the
Holy Qur’aan begin?
A. Once, when the Holy Prophet ()
was in this cave, Hazrat Jibra’eel ()
appeared before him and said to him, “Iqra.” (This is the first word
of Surah ‘Alaq, meaning “Read!”) The Holy Prophet ()
replied, “I am not a reader.” This happened three times. Then Hazrat Jibra’eel read out these lines:
Read: In the name of thy Lord who created; Created man from a clot. Read: And
thy Lord is the Most Bounteous; Who teaches by the pen; Teaches man that which
he knew not.
this from Hazrat Jibra’eel (),
the Prophet ()
also repeated it. These lines were the first to be revealed to our Holy Prophet
Q. If the revelation of the Holy
Qur’aan began with these first lines of Surah ‘Alaq, then was the Holy
Qur’aan not revealed in the order in which we have it now?
A. No, the present order is not
according to the order of the revelation of the Qur’aan. Revelation was
according to the need and occasion. But when a surah was revealed, the
Holy Prophet ()
would instruct that it should be written before and after certain surahs.
In the same way, when an ayaat or many ayaat were revealed, he
would instruct to write them before and after certain other ayaat. Thus,
the present order in which the Holy Qur’aan appears is not in the order as it
was revealed, but set according to the instructions, wishes and orders of the
Holy Prophet ().
Q. Did the Holy Prophet ()
maintain the order of the Holy Qur’aan and get it written however he wished,
or did he give directions according to the order of Allâh?
A. The number of surahs,
their beginning and end, the number of ayaat in every surah, and
their beginning and end- and in the same way the complete present order of the
Qur’aan- was made known to Hazrat Jibra’eel by Allâh. Hazrat Jibra’eel
informed the Holy Prophet ()
and through the Prophet (),
the same was made known to us.
Q. It is more than 1400 years since
the Holy Qur’aan was revealed- what is the proof that it is the same Qur’aan
as was revealed to our Holy Prophet Muhammad ()?
A. There are many proofs that the
present Qur’aan is the same Book as was revealed to our Holy Prophet ().
Here we tell some of the obvious proofs:
Proof: The Tawaatur of the Holy Qur’aan. It has continuity since
the time of the Holy Prophet (),
without a change or break. A thing which is proved by such continuity is
absolute and above suspicion.
Q. What is meant by Mutawaatir
A. A thing which is quoted in a
similar way by a large number of people, for whom common sense tells us that
they all cannot tell lies, is called “Mutawaatir.” Its constant
citing in a similar way is called “Tawaatur.” Thus, the Holy
Qur’aan has been quoted so much by so many persons since the time of our Holy
that a man of even ordinary intelligence would say that surely all these people
cannot have been telling lies.
Proof: Millions of people have been learning the Holy Qur’aan by heart
since the days of the Holy Prophet ().
Even today there are hundreds of thousands of Muslim children, youth, and old
men who have the whole book safe in their hearts. Such a person is called a Haafiz.
A Book which has been safeguarded and learned by heart by so many people since
its revelation should not be subject to any doubt in its being safeguarded and
Proof: In the Qur’aan itself, Allâh has said:
Lo! We, even We, reveal the Reminder, and lo! We verily are its Guardian.
Allâh Himself has taken the responsibility of safeguarding the Holy Qur’aan,
it is necessarily proven that the present book is the same as was revealed to
the Holy Prophet ().
Since Allâh promised to safeguard it, it is safeguarded up till today, and Allâh-willing,
it will remain so until Qiyaamat.
Proof: It was claimed by the Holy Qur’aan, when being revealed, that
nobody could equal its text and style. This is true up till today. Nobody has
succeeded in presenting the match of the Holy Qur’aan as it exists to this
day, nor can anyone ever match its text and style. This is an open proof that
the present book is the same Book that was revealed to the Holy Prophet ().
The Holy Qur’aan says:
...and there is not a nation but a warner has passed among them.
At another place it is said:
...and for every folk a guide.
Q. These lines show that Allâh
sent prophets to every country and every people. Did any prophets come to places
like India and China and this land as well?
A. It is certainly proven by these
verses that to every nation was sent a guide and warner from Allâh. It is thus
quite in accordance with the plan of Allâh that the prophets must have been
raised in all parts of the world including India and China and other places.
Q. Can we believe that the
religious leaders of the Hindus, such as Krishanji and Ram Chandarji, were Allâh’s
A. We cannot believe that.
Prophethood is a special rank given by Allâh to His chosen and devoted
creatures. As long as it is not proven by the Shari’ah that this privilege or
rank was given to a certain person by Allâh, one cannot definitely call a
person a prophet. If we call any person a prophet without proof and in reality
he is not a prophet, we will be answerable to Allâh for this wrong belief.
example: If you accept a person as a Viceroy or Governor of a King, while in
reality he is not that at all, then you will be guilty in the eyes of the
government since you would be attributing a wrong thing by accepting him as
Governor although the King has not made him so. Therefore, we can only call
those pious people of the past as prophets whose prophethood is proven by the
Shari’ah or they have been referred to as prophets in the Holy Qur’aan or Hadeeth.
religious leaders and guides of the Hindus, or of any other nation, we can only
say this much: that if their beliefs and actions were righteous and their
directions were not against heavenly directions and they did lead humanity to
the path of virtue and righteousness as described by Allâh, they might have
been Nabis, or prophets. But to say it definitely that they were prophets
is not right.
Q. What beliefs should one have
about the Holy Prophet Muhammad ()?
- That he was a human being and Allâh’s
- He is superior to all except Allâh.
- He is innocent of all sins.
- Allâh revealed the Holy Qur’aan to him.
- He was invited to the heavens by Allâh on
the occassion of Mi’raaj and he was shown Heaven and Hell on that
- Many a miracle was performed at his hand by
- He worshipped and prayed to Allâh very
- His habits and morals were par
- He was given knowledge of many things
pertaining to the past and future by Allâh, which he disclosed before his ummah.
- Allâh gave him greater knowledge than any other creature. But he
was not ‘Aalim-ul-Ghayb (one who knows the unseen or unheard), because
that is a special quality of Allâh only.
- No prophet will come after him and he is Khaatim-un-Nabiy-yeen,
the last of all the prophets. Only Hazrat ‘Isaa ()
will again descend from Heaven, but even he will follow the Islamic Shari’ah.
- He is the prophet of all human beings and jinn.
- On Allâh’s order, he will ask forgiveness for the sinners on
the Day of Judgment. That is why he is called Shaafi’-ul-Mudhnibeen.
Allâh will accept the request of our Holy Prophet ().
- It is necessary for the ummah to do what he ()
has ordered and abandon what he has forbidden and also to accept and believe in
their own context all his prophecies.
- It is necessary for all Muslims to regard and respect him, but
this should be within the limits and rules of Shari’ah. To respect against
these rules of Shari’ah, and then to think that it is an expression of love,
Q. What is meant by “innocent”?
A. All the prophets were innocent.
It means that our Holy Prophet ()
committed no sins, minor or major, knowingly or unknowingly.
Q. Was the ascent, or going up for Mi’raaj,
done bodily or was it only a dream in sleep?
A. The Holy Prophet ()
went up for Mi’raaj with his body and so the ascent was bodily. Apart
from this, he went several times on Mi’raaj in his dreams. These are
called Manaami Mi’raaj (Manaami means in a dream), but the
dreams of all prophets are true and there is no doubt about them. Thus, one
ascent of our Holy Prophet ()
was of body and four or five others happened in dreams.
Q. What is meant by Shafaa’ah?
A. Shafaa’ah is
intercession or recommendation. On the Day of Judgment, the Holy Prophet ()
will plead for the sinners for their pardon to Allâh. This honor has already
been reserved for our Holy Prophet ().
He will beg leave to ask for Allâh’s pardon on behalf of sinners with utmost
respect. When Allâh’s permission will be given, our Prophet ()
will make the recommendations. Besides the Holy Prophet (),
other prophets, Awliyaa, and martyrs (Shuhadaa) can also make
recommendations, but not without the permission of Allâh.
Q. Pardon for what sorts of sins
will be recommended?
A. All sorts of sinners except
those of Kufr (denial of Allâh and Islam) and Shirk (believing in
other gods) will be recommended for pardon. Those who have done major sins will
be in greater need of recommendation, because small sins are pardoned even in
this world through prayers.
Q. What is Imaan?
A. Imaan means believing in
Allâh and in all His qualities, angels, heavenly books and prophets by heart,
and to believe as true all that the Holy Prophet ()
brought from Allâh, and to proclaim this belief. This proclamation is the basis
of Imaan, but proclamation in full is subject to conditions and
disabilities also. For example, a dumb person’s faith will be accepted without
being expressed in spoken words.
Q. What are the A’maal-e-Saalihah?
A. Virtuous actions, or good deeds
and prayers as told by Allâh and taught to His creatures by Allâh’s
prophets. All these are called A’maal-e-Saalihah or A’maal-us-Saalihah.
Q. Do prayers and virtuous deeds
also form the basis of Imaan?
A. Yes, virtuous deeds are included
in Imaan-e-Kaamil (complete faith). Virtuous actions make Imaan
bright and perfect. Without these, Imaan is incomplete.
Q. What is meant by ‘Ibaadah?
A. ‘Ibaadah means worship.
One who worships is called an ‘Abd and the one who is worshipped is
called Ma’bood. The only true object of worship is Allâh, Who created
us and the whole universe. We all are His creatures. He has ordered us to
worship Him and it is our duty to do so.
Q. Which of Allâh’s creatures
have been ordered to worship?
A. Human beings and Jinn
have been ordered to worship Allâh. They are called Mukallaf
(duty-bound). Angels and other creatures of the universe are not Mukallaf.
(They have no alternative except to obey what Allâh has created them for.)
Q. Who are Jinn?
A. Jinn are also Allâh’s
creatures, born of fire. Their bodies are so fine that we cannot see them. They
can be seen only when they take the shape of a man or animal. They have been
given this power by Allâh- the power to change their shape and form and become
man or animal. Jinn are both male and female and have children also.
Q. What are the ways of doing ‘Ibaadah?
A. There are many ways of
worshipping: Prayer, fasting, giving charity, going for Hajj, sacrifice of
animals, I’tikaaf (retiring to the mosque), teaching good things to Allâh’s
creatures, restraining oneself and others from bad deeds, respecting parents and
teachers, building mosques, running schools, acquiring and spreading knowledge
and helping those who seek knowledge, helping the poor, fighting the enemies of
Allâh in the name of Allâh, feeding the hungry, providing water to the
thirsty, and so on. Many other acts which are ordered by Allâh or which are
praised by Him are acts of worship. All these are also called A’maal-e-Saalihah.
Q. What is Ma’siyah?
A. Ma’siyah means
disobedience. Disobeying Allâh’s orders is Ma’siyah or “sin.” To
sin is very bad. Allâh’s anger and punishments come because of sin. Not
believing in Allâh and to believe in more than one god are the greatest sins.
Such persons, kuffaar and mushrikeen, will always remain in Hell.
No prophet will recommend them and it has been declared by Allâh in the
Qur’aan that He will never forgive the kuffaar and mushrikeen.
Q. What are kufr and shirk?
A. Not believing in any one of the
important articles of faith is Kufr. For example, one who does not
believe in Allâh or His qualities; one who believes in two or three gods;
denies the existence of angels; denies any one of Allâh’s Books; does not
believe in any prophet, in Fate, in the Day of Judgment; denies any of Allâh’s
absolute orders and treats any information given by the Holy Prophet ()
as false: such a person will be kaafir.
is to make somebody share in Allâh’s qualities or in His person.
Q. What is the sharing of Allâh’s
qualities in person?
A. Associating someone else in Allâh’s
Person is to believe in two or more gods. The Christians are mushrik as
they believe in three gods. Fire worshippers are mushrik as they believe
in two gods. Hindus, by believing in many gods, become mushrik.
Q. What is sharing in qualities?
A. It is to attribute Allâh’s
qualities to someone else. This is shirk because Allâh’s qualities are
unequalled by any of His creatures- be they angels, prophets, awliyaa,
martyrs, imaam, or any other devoted persons. Their qualities cannot
match the qualities of Allâh.
Q. In what ways can the Divine
qualities be shared?
A. Many. Here we shall mention some
(1) Shirk fil-Qudrat. To attribute Allâh’s
quality of Power to anybody else. For example, to believe that a certain prophet
or wali or martyr can bring about rains or cause the birth of babies or
fulfil desires or give food or kill or bring anything into life or bring benefit
or damage. All these things are shirk.
(2) Shirk fil-‘Ilm. To attribute Allâh’s
power of Knowledge to others. For example, to say that a prophet or a pious man
has the knowledge of the unseen, or knows about everything, of is aware of all
of our affairs, or can tell what is happening far and near. All this is Shirk
(3) Shirk fis-Sam’a wal-Basar.
To attribute Allâh’s power of Seeing and Hearing to others. For example, to
believe that a certain prophet or a pious person could hear things far and near,
or could see all of our own acts.
(4) Shirk fil-Hukm. To
accept any other person as superior and obey him like Allâh. For example, if a
pious person has told one to say certain prayers before ‘Asr and one takes it
as necessary and does that and even delays the ‘Asr prayer and performs it at
the makrooh time, it will be shirk.
(5) Shirk fil-‘Ibaadah is to
accept any other person as worthy of worship like Allâh. For example, to do sajdah
(prostration) or rukuu’ (bow) before a grave or a pious person, or
doing rukuu’ likewise, or to keep fast, in the name of a prophet, wali
or imaam, or to give nadhr (oath or vow) or to promise an
offering like that, etc., or to go around a house or grave like one goes
around the Ka’bah (tawaaf): all these are Shirk
Q. Are there any more acts of Shirk?
A. Yes, there are many acts of shirk
which must be avoided. Some of these are: to ask about heavenly secrets from
astrologers; to show hands to a palmist to know about the future; to ask others
for faal (which is another way of trying to know the future from omens);
to treat diseases like smallpox, etc. as contagious and infectious which
can be contracted without Allâh’s permission; to make Ta’aziyas
(floats or models of tombs) and ‘Alams (banners); to offer as sacrifice
sweets, flowers, etc. on graves; to swear in the name of someone other
than Allâh; to put pictures and pay respects to them; to call any pious person
one’s rescuer or savior; to grow hair in the name of a wali; or to turn
faqeer (beggars) in Muharram in the name of an imaam.
Q. Which sin is the greatest after shirk
A. Bid’ah (innovation)
comes after these two. Bid’ah is a thing which has no basis in
Shari’ah. A thing which is not proved from the Holy Qur’aan and Hadeeth, in
practice at the time of the Holy Prophet (),
his Companions, and those who came after them, but is now considered as a
is very bad. The Holy Prophet ()
has condemned one who indulges in bid’ah and called him a destroyer of
the religion. The Holy Prophet ()
has said that every bid’ah leads to Hell and makes others go astray.
Q. Give some examples of Bid’ah.
A. People have introduced thousands
of bid’aat. Some of them are: to build graves of hard bricks; to hold
celebrations (at graves); to build domes on graves; to light candles or lamps at
the graves; to spread sheets and covers on graves; to gather for a feast after a
death in a house; to wear garlands in marriage; or to make such additions in the
mustahab actions which are not based on Shari’ah.
Q. What are the other sinful things
besides shirk, kufr, and bid’ah?
A. There are many more sins other
than kufr, shirk, and bid’ah. For example: telling lies,
not saying prayers, not keeping fasts, not giving Zakaat, not going on Hajj
while one can afford it and has property and health, drinking wine,
stealing, slander, speaking ill of someone in his or her absence, giving false
witness, molesting others, deceiving, disobeying teachers and parents, hanging
pictures in one’s house, betraying trusts, treating others with contempt,
gambling, abusing, watching dances, giving and taking interest and usury,
shaving the beard, wearing pants below the ankles, extravagance, going to dramas
and plays- are all sinful acts. There are still many other forms of sins, you
will read about them at later stages.
Q. Does a Muslim who commits sins
remain a Muslim?
A. One whose sin is kufr and
shirk does not remain a Muslim. He becomes Kaafir and Mushrik.
One who commits bid’ah remains a Muslim but with an incomplete and
imperfect faith. Such a person is called a Mutabaddi’ or Bid’ati.
One who commits other big sins, although he remains a Muslim, he will have a
deficient and imperfect faith, and is called a Faasiq.
Q. If someone commits a sin, how
can he save himself from punishment?
A. Allâh forgives if one asks His
pardon. This is called Tawbah. It means repentance. When one repents and
makes a vow not to commit the sin again, his tawbah may be accepted by
Allâh. He should request Allâh with much humility to be pardoned and should
make a vow not to repeat the sin again. Just saying it in one’s heart does not
complete the tawbah.
Q. Does repentance and asking
forgiveness bring pardon for all sorts of sins?
A. All sins which do not relate to
any other person and are such that Allâh will punish because of disobedience
can be pardoned. Even kufr and shirk can be pardoned by truly
asking for forgiveness. But sins in which the creatures of Allâh are concerned
– for instance, making wrong use of an orphan’s property, making false
charges against someone or doing cruelty – these cannot be pardoned by merely
asking Allâh’s forgiveness. For this, the person concerned should be asked
for pardon. First pay him his dues and ask his forgiveness, then expect Allâh’s
pardon. These sins are infringement and violation of Huqooq-ul-‘Ibaad
(peoples’ rights) and they will not be pardoned by Allâh alone.
Q. When is the request for
forgiveness not granted?
A. The only time when forgiveness
will not be granted is when a person is breathing his last and is about to die,
he sees the angels of punishment and then asks for forgiveness. But before that,
the request may always be accepted.
Q. If a sinful person dies without
asking for tawbah, will he go to Paradise?
A. Except for a kaafir and mushrik,
all will go to Paradise after receiving punishment for their sins. If they have
violated other people’s rights, their rewards for good deeds will be taken
from them and will be given to those whom they did wrong as compensation for
their suffering. It is also possible that Allâh grants pardon and does not
punish for all sins, except kufr and shirk, with or without
Q. What are the ways in which near
relatives or friends can do good to the dead?
A. Such benefits can come to the
dead by extra worship to Allâh, or through righteous use of money. For example,
if a person reads the Holy Qur’aan, Darood Shareef, or gives away
charity in the name of Allâh, or gives food to the hungry, he gets reward from
Allâh. But Allâh has given the choice to pass on these rewards to another
person. To obtain the rewards from Allâh, no time is fixed. No event or day
must be given a particular shape, significance, or look for this purpose.
Anything which is at hand can be given to a deserving person at any time and the
rewards for such a deed can be passed on to the soul of a dead person. It is
condemned to observe formalities or give feasts, sometimes beyond one’s means,
by taking loans, just for the sake of making show or for maintaining custom and