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The db of Tilwah

(The etiquette of reciting the Qurn)

Before commencing tilwah:

1. Perform wud. It is harm (prohibited) to touch the Qurn without wud.

2. It is permissible to recite the Qurn without wud from memory, without handling the Qurn.

3. It is not permissible for a person on whom ghusl is compulsory to recite the Qurn at all, even from memory.

4. Use a miswk and ensure that the mouth is thoroughly cleansed of any strong or offensive smell such as garlic, raw onion, cigarettes, cigars, tobacco, etc.

5. The respect for the Qurn should be regarded as binding upon every Muslim at all times. Sit is a secluded place facing the Qiblah in an extremely dignified manner. One should not lean against anything or stretch out ones legs or lie down while reciting the Qurn.

6. The Qurn must be placed on an elevated position such as a rihl (Qurn stand), desk, or pillow. Do not place the Qurn on the musall (carpet) or the mimbar or any place on which people stand or sit, and especially not on the ground.

7. The use of Itr (permissible fragrance) is recommended before recital.

When commencing tilwah and during tilwah:

1. The niyyah (intention) for the recital of the Qurn must be solely for the purpose of gaining Allhs pleasure and to obtain His favor.

2. Recite dard sharf an odd number of times before commencing and after recital. Taawwudh and tasmiyah must be recited.

3. Recite the Qurn with complete attention and humbleness and in a dignified manner, as if you are reciting in response to Allhs command, and also that you are in His presence and that He is listening to your recital.

4. When one is alone it is better to recite aloud. However, when one is reciting in a masjid or where others are occupied in their ibdah, or there is fear of showing off, then it is best to recite softly. Recite in a melodious voice because this has been emphasized in many ahdth. Do not sing the verses or imitate the manner and style of the non-Muslims, for this is totally forbidden.

5. It is wjib (compulsory) to recite the Qurn-ul-Karm correctly. Do not recite with haste but make an effort to recite with tartl (fluency) and with tajwd (according to the rules of recitation).

6. When reciting with comprehension, then upon reaching an yah describing mercy, ask for Allhs mercy; and when reciting an yah in which punishment is depicted, then beseech Allh to save you from such punishment. On an yah pertaining to Allhs Glory and Sanctity, one should say, Subhnallh.

7. An effort must be made to understand the Qurn; and where one is not conversant with the Arabic language, he should endeavor to understand the meanings of particular yt from the ulam of from studying authentic translations. The ahdth of Raslullh  strictly prohibit the translation and interpretation of the Qurn to suit ones own views, more especially and specifically so when one is not fully acquainted with all the related sciences of the Qurn.

8. Try to shed tears while reciting, even if one has to compel oneself to do so.

9. One must not talk during tilwah of the Qurn. If an important matter has to be discussed with anyone then the recital should be stopped and the Qurn closed. If anyone desires to continue reciting thereafter, then he must recite the taawwudh and tasmiyah and then continue from where one had stopped.

10. It is reported in one hadth that whoever has recited the Qurn and thereafter praised Allh and conveyed blessings upon Raslullh  and then asked for forgiveness from his Sustainer, indeed he has asked for goodness from its very source.

11. Do not place any other book, kitb, or object (hat, cap, turban, spectacles, etc.) on the Qurn during or after recital.

12. Do not turn your back towards the Qurn during or after recital, and do not sit with the Qurn in such a position that it faces someone elses back.

13. If one feels tired and begins to yawn while reciting the Qurn, then the recitation should be terminated and only continued after having rested.

14. Do not sit on a place which is higher than the Qurn when the Qurn is within sight.

15. After terminating the recital, put the Qurn into a juzdn (pouch) and then place it respectfully on a high shelf or any other safe place.

16. It is sinful to carelessly discard torn or worn pages of the Qurn. Do not throw them into the waste basket or bin. Unusable (loose) pages must be put into a clean, thir (pk) wrapper and buried in a thir (pk) and clean place.

17. Do not take the Qurn or anything with the name of Allh or the Prophet Muhammad  into the bathroom or toilet. Do not recite the Qurn whilst in the toilet.

18. Besides the Qurn, other pieces of paper or things with the names of Allh and Raslullh  must not be shown disrespect by being carelessly discarded at places where these would be trampled upon.


Tilwah of the Qurn

When to recite the Qurn:

The most suitable time to recite the Qurn is after Fajr salh. The most virtuous time is the latter part of the night. It is also desirable to recite the Qurn between the times of Maghrib and Ish salh. The Qurn should be recited at any time of the day or night provided one is not in the state of janbat, etc. (i.e. in need of compulsory ghusl, bath). Tilwah is allowed during the makrh times of salh as well.

Extent of recital:

According to the jamhh (general body of ulam) there is no limitation of the maximum period in which one khatm should be completed. The reciting should be completed within such time as is convenient. Some ulam however, say that the maximum period should not exceed forty days. This means that at least three-fourths of a juz should be recited daily. If for some reason this extent could not be recited on that day, then the missed portion should also be covered on the next day, so that the khatm can be completed in forty days. This view is supported by a hadth in which it is reported: Whoever delays the completion of the Qurn in more than forty nights has delayed it considerably.

Some ulam are of the opinion that a khatm should be completed once every month, though it is preferable to complete a khatm every week, since this was the practice of most Sahbah . One could start the recital on Friday and recite the one manzil (halting point) daily, so that the khatm is completed on the following Thursday.  (These manzil are clearly marked at the bottom of every page.) According to Imm Abu Hanfah  it is ones duty to recite the Qurn at least twice a year (i.e. two khatms). Therefore, under no circumstances should one recite less than this.


Those Srahs of the Qurn which are to be Recited in Salh

Wthilah  relates that Raslullh  has said: I have been given as-Saba at-Tuwal in lieu of the Torah, al-Min in lieu of the Psalms, al-Mathni in lieu of the Bible, and al-Mufassal as a special favor for me.

The first seven srahs are called as-Saba at-Tuwal (the seven longest ones); the next eleven are called al-Min (those consisting of about a hundred yt each); the following twenty srahs are known as al-Mathni (oft-repeated srahs); while all the other remaining srahs are al-Mufassal (the explicit ones). It is masnn (sunnah) to recite the al-Mufassal in the fard salh. These srahs are divided into three sections and are to be recited in the five fard salh as follows:

Fajr and Zuhr      The longer ones of the al-Mufassal. These are from Srah al-Hujurt to Srah al-Inshiqq.

Asr and Ish:      The medium ones of the al-Mufassal. These are from Srah al-Burj to Srah al-Qadr.

Maghrib:               The short ones of the al-Mufassal. These are from Srah al-Bayyinah to Srah an-Ns.


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